Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering
Articles Information
Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Vol.7, No.4, Dec. 2021, Pub. Date: Dec. 6, 2021
The Effects of Irrigation with Saline Water (Sodium Chloride) on the Growth of Spinach (Spinachea oceloracea. L.)
Pages: 87-92 Views: 490 Downloads: 80
Authors
[01] Bruce Roy Thulane Vilane, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Eswatini, Luyengo Campus, Luyengo, Kingdom of Eswatini.
[02] Arubayi Phumlile, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Eswatini, Luyengo Campus, Luyengo, Kingdom of Eswatini.
Abstract
The global challenges of feeding the ever increasing population have brought about challenges in food production and by extension agricultural crop production such as the use of saline water for irrigation. Though this is the case the saline tolerance by crops differs, hence this study. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of saline water irrigation on the growth and yield of spinach. The experiment had five treatments, which were irrigated water with varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl), at the rate of 0 dS/m (T0), 2 dS/m (T1), 4 dS/m (T2), 6 dS/m (T3) and 8 dS/m (T4). The treatments were laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with five replications per treatment. The effects were assessed in terms of the leaf length and width, the number of leaves per plant and the fresh and dry shoot and root mass. The results reflected that salt concentration beyond 2 dS/m had a negative effect on the growth of spinach, as spinach from T0 and T1 had the highest overall growth rate. An increase in the concentration of the irrigation water led to a decrease in the yield of the spinach and the size of the roots. It was concluded that that saline water with a concentrations greater than 2 dS/m had a negative effect on the growth of spinach and was therefore not suitable for irrigation purposes. It was also concluded that salinity in the irrigation water, especially beyond 2 dS/m, had a negative effect on the yield and the size of the spinach roots.
Keywords
Effects, Irrigation, Saline Water, Spinach
References
[01] Agriculture Victoria. (2017). Available at: http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/farm-management/soil-and-water/salinity/measuring-the-salinity-of-water. Accessed 28/09/2021.
[02] Bauder, T. A.; Waskom, R. M.; Sutherland, P. L. and Davis, J. G. (Undated). Irrigation Water Quality Criteria. https://www.specmeters.com/assets/1/7/20131111_-_Irrigation_Water_Quality_Criteria_-_Colorado_State_Univ,_May_2011.pdf. Accessed November, 2021.
[03] Bruckner, M. Z. (2018). Microbial Life Educational Resources. Available at: https://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/environ_sampling/pH_EC.html Accessed 28/09/2021.
[04] Che, Z.; Wang, J. and Li, J. (2021). Effects of water quality, irrigation amount and nitrogen applied on soil salinity and cotton production under mulched drip irrigation in arid Northwest China. Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 247, 31 March 2021, 106738247 pp. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378377421000032. Accessed 20/09/2021.
[05] FAO, (2021). Soil salinization as a global major challenge. https://www.fao.org/global-soil-partnership/resources/highlights/detail/en/c/1412475/. Accessed November, 2021.
[06] Kirkham, M. B. (2014). Principles of soil and plant water relations. 2nd ed. Elsevier, Manhattan.
[07] Khan, A. E., Xun, W. W., Ahsan, H., Vineis, P. (2011). Climate change, sea-level rise and health impacts in Bangladesh. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 53 (5), pp. 18-33.
[08] Mateo-Sagasta, J. and Burke, J. (2021). Agriculture and water quality interactions: a global overview. https://www.fao.org/3/bl092e/bl092e.pdf. Accessed November, 2021.
[09] Minton, J. (2019). Water Research Foundation – Water Reuse Program. 69th Annual Ku Environmental Engineering Conference. 17 April, 2019. https://ceae.ku.edu/sites/ceae.ku.edu/files/images/general/environmental/Minton%20-%20WRF%20Water%20Reuse%20-%20KU%20EEC%2019.pdf. Accessed 06/10/2021.
[10] Mullen, K., (Undated). Distribution of the Earth's water https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1CHBD_enSZ876SZ876&lei=9HJdYY79GZeX8gKsh5PoCA&q=what%20percent%20of%20earth%E2%80%99s%20water%20is%20available%20to%20humans%3F&ved=2ahUKEwiOx8jawrXzAhWXi1wKHazDBI0QsKwBKAR6BAg_EAU&biw=1366&bih=657&dpr=1 Accessed November, 2021...
[11] Mohammad, Z.; Shabbir, A. Shahid, and Lee, H. (2018). Irrigation water quality. SpringerLink. pp113-132.https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-96190-3_5.pdf. Accessed November, 2021.
[12] Rhoades, J. D., Khandiah, A., Mashali, A. M. (1992). The use of saline water for crop production- FAO irrigation and drainage paper 48. FAO, 48.
[13] Scherer, T. F., Seelig, B., Franzen, D. (2017). North Dakota State University. Available at: https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/crops/soil-water-and-plant-characteristics-important-to-irrigation#section-6. Accessed 28/08/2021.
[14] Thorslund, J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Gualbert H. P.; Oude, E.; Edwin, H. S.; and Michelle. T. H. van Vliet. (2021). Common irrigation drivers of freshwater salinisation in river basins worldwide. Nat Commun 12, 4232 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24281-8. Accessed November, 2021.
[15] UN Environment Programme, (2019). Towards sustainable desalination. https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/towards-sustainable-desalination. Accessed 06/10/2021.
[16] World Bank, (2020). The Kingdom of Eswatini. Toward Equal Opportunity: Accelerating Inclusion and Poverty Reduction Systematic Country Diagnostic. World Bank Group, Eswatini Country Team Africa Region. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/966931608603154612/pdf/Eswatini-Systematic-Country-Diagnostic-Toward-Equal-Opportunity-Accelerating-Inclusion-and-Poverty-Reduction.pdf. Accessed 06/10/2021.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.